Running may be the single most effective exercise to increase life expectancy, according to a new review and analysis of past research about exercise and premature death. The new study found that, compared to non-runners, runners tended to live about three additional years, even if they run slowly or sporadically and smoke, drink or are overweight. No other form of exercise that researchers looked at showed comparable impacts on life span.
The findings come as a follow-up to a study done three years ago, in which a group of distinguished exercise scientists scrutinized data from a large trove of medical and fitness tests conducted at the Cooper Institute in Dallas. That analysis found that as little as five minutes of daily running was associated with prolonged life spans.
After that study was released, the researchers were inundated with queries from fellow scientists and the general public, says Duck-chul Lee, a professor of kinesiology at Iowa State University and co-author of the study. Some people asked if other activities, such as walking, were likely to be as beneficial as running for reducing mortality risks.
High-mileage runners wondered if they could be doing too much, and if at some undefined number of miles or hours, running might become counterproductive and even contribute to premature mortality.
And a few people questioned whether running really added materially to people’s life spans. Could it be, they asked rather peevishly, that if in order to reduce your risk of dying by a year, you had to spend the equivalent of a year’s worth of time on the trails or track, producing no discernible net gain?
So for the new study, which was published in March in Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, Lee and his colleagues set out to address those and related issues by reanalyzing data from the Cooper Institute and also examining results from a number
It is implied in Paragraph 1 that runners ________.
often run slowly or occasionally
may live a life that is a little longer than the non-runners
are fond of drinking or smoking
can live a healthy life
The analysis of the medical and fitness tests showed that ________.
daily running played an important role in prolonging life spans
five minutes’ daily running was totally enough in prolonging life spans
daily running could not reduce mortality risks
daily running might enhance people’s sense of happiness
The following aspects are the reasons why the researchers were inundated with queries EXCEPT that ________.
some people wondered if walking was likely to be as good as running
high-mileage runners doubted whether running might lead to premature death
a few people questioned whether running really added materially to people’s life spans
some people asked calmly whether it is worthwhile to spend the whole year on running
According to the passage, the new review indicated that ________.
findings of the earlier research were wrong
running could not necessarily lower a person’s risk of premature death
running was beneficial to people’s health
people with smoking, drinking and other health problems are not mentioned to run
The author’s attitude toward running is ________.